By M. Bacon
This publication introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of analyzing 3-D seismic information. the themes it covers contain simple structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization tools; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written by means of expert geophysicists with a long time of operating adventure within the oil undefined, the e-book can be necessary for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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Extra info for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
High-frequencynoise removal 13. Drop of interpolatedtraces 14. 5 m on near to 50 m on far offsets 15. Sort to common offset 16. Dip moveout (including approximateNMO) halving the number ofoffset planeson output 17. Pre-stack time migration using constant velocity 1600 m/s 18. InverseNMO 19. 5 km grid) 20. NMO Processinghereattercontinuing on three volumes: 21 . Stack to generate three volumes: near offset stack, far offset stack and full offset stack 22. 3-D constantvelocity inversetime migntion 23.
SocietyofExploration Geophysicists,GeophysicalMonograph SeriesNo. 7. Garotta,R. ln,mAcquisition to Interpret(tion Society ofExploration ceophysi_ cists, DistinguishedInstructor Series,No. 3. society ofExploration Geophysicists, course Notes series No. 4. Hatton, L.. Worthington,M. H. and Makin, J. (19g6). SeismicData processing: Theoryan l practice. Blackwell Scientific. London. Iack,l. (1997). Society ofExploratlon ceophysicists, 1998 DistinguishedInstructor Short Course. , Bacon, M. An Introduction to Seismic Inrerpretatio, (2nd edn).
The lack of vehiclesmay meanthe majority of movementof equipmenthas to be by helicopter,an important issue for safety. Anotherissueis the amountof time that may haveto be spentcuttinglines in lbrested areas. Whatevertype of land sourceis used,the entire surveyneedsto be correctedfor the arival time changesdue to both topographyand variationsin the thicknessof the near-surface layer (fig. The nearsurfaceis generallyheavilyweatheredand usuallyhasalteredacousticpropeftiescomparedwith the lessaffecteddeeperlayers.