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Additional resources for Advances in Computers, Vol. 24

Example text

But if you are like most ordinary people, and if the task I have asked you to perform is sufficiently similar to some of the psychological experiments that have been performed on ordinary people, then depending on how you interpret the task your performance may not be very logical. If you were being logical, then you would certainly check Bob, to make sure that he has the label A stuck to his front; and most people, according to psychological studies, correctly perform this inference. So far so good.

However, in the Computational Logic used in this book, both kinds of sentences are expressed declaratively. For example, we represent the conditional-imperative sentence: 1 The terms “goal” and “purpose” are interchangeable. Other terms that sometimes have the same meaning are “motivation”, “reason”, “interest”, “desire”, “objective”, “mission”, “target”, “value”, etc. 1: Logic on the Underground 23 If there is an emergency then deal with the emergency appropriately. as the declarative sentence: If there is an emergency then you deal with the emergency appropriately.

28 Computational Logic and Human Thinking John, drinking cola. Susan, a primary school child, obviously under eighteen years old. In contrast with the card version of the selection task, most people solve the bar version correctly, realising that it is necessary to check Bob to make sure that he is at least eighteen years old, and to check Susan to make sure that she is not drinking alcohol, but that it is not necessary to check Mary and John. Cognitive psychologists have proposed a bewildering number of theories to explain why people are so much better at solving such versions of the selection task compared with other, formally equivalent variations, like the original card version.

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