Download Advances in Virus Research, Vol. 72 by Karl Maramorosch, Aaron J. Shatkin, Frederick A. Murphy PDF

By Karl Maramorosch, Aaron J. Shatkin, Frederick A. Murphy

Released on account that 1953, Advances in Virus study covers a various variety of in-depth reports offering a invaluable evaluation of the present box of virology. The effect issue for 2006 is 3.48 putting it seventh within the hugely aggressive type of virology. * Contributions from top professionals * Informs and updates on all of the most recent advancements within the box

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Consequently, identifying the mechanisms of pathogenicity, as well as characterizing viral determinants of virulence (which for DENV infections implies progression into DHF) has been difficult. , 1973a; Rosen, 1958a), although the duration and magnitude of virus replication often correlates with patterns of replication in humans. , 2005). , 2006). , 1999) and proved useful for virulence testing of DENV vaccine 38 A Nikos Vasilakis and Scott C. p. ~4–6 wks IL-4 + GM-CSF selection of CD14+ monocytes 6–7 days 200 Counts Development of peritoneal tumors 160 Isotype 120 DC-SIGN 80 CD83 40 0 0 10 1 103 102 10 Mouse IgG2a FITC Confirm immature status of mo-DCs by FACS 104 Infect immature mo-DCs with DENV (MOI= 2) Inject 1ϫ104 virus directly into tumor 2 days 7 days Collect serum, isolate and characterize virus in tumor, liver, brain Collect supernatant and quantify virus output FIGURE 8 Surrogate human models of DENV used to estimate the infection phenotypes of sylvatic versus endemic DENV-2 strains.

There has been no evidence that sylvatic amplification cycles are involved in major outbreaks of human DEN, which involve the genetically and ecologically distinct endemic strains. The available data suggest that the sylvatic strains are either confined to forest habitats and/or produce relatively mild illness (DEN fever). Most of our current understanding of human illness after infection with sylvatic DENV comes from the case histories of DENV infections in two Senegalese and three expatriate Caucasian patients, which led to the isolation and genetic characterization of DENV-2.

These sylvatic cycles are representative of ancestral cycles from which the endemic strains (all four serotypes) are thought to have arisen independently several hundreds to thousands of years ago. In comparison, current tropical urban endemic cycles occur in evolutionarily independent and ecologically distinct environments through transmission of DENV between anthropophilic Aedes spp. mosquito vectors and humans serving as reservoir hosts. The first support for this hypothesis came from phylogenetic studies by Rico-Hesse, which demonstrated that sylvatic, West African DENV-2 strains are genetically distinct from endemic isolates (Rico-Hesse, 1990).

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