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By Grant E. Isaac

Genetically changed (GM) agricultural vegetation that are licensed as secure in North the United States (Canada and the us) are dealing with major regulatory hurdles in having access to the eu Union. the improvement and commercialization of GM vegetation illustrate a fancy problem dealing with exchange international relations - the problem of regulatory regionalism created via social regulatory boundaries.

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Additional info for Agricultural Biotechnology and Transatlantic Trade: Regulatory Barriers to GM Crops (Cabi Publishing)

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International economic integration is simply an extension of this perspective on regulatory development to the international level, where the nation-state, as the regulatory jurisdiction, remains the primary actor. The rationale for international economic integration is to facilitate scale economies and the optimal allocation of factors of production according to the principle of comparative advantage (Jovanovic, 1998e). Comparative advantage is simply the principle that global welfare can be maximized by allocating factors of production to where they are most efficiently utilized and then trading products to meet consumer demand.

5From Harlander (1993); mutagenesis involves exposing seeds to a mutagenic agent (ethylmethylsulphonate (EMS)) and then growing seeds out to select those resultant plants with desired traits. In this case, the genetic modification is a more random or imprecise process than transgenic modifications, with the deliberate environmental release of less characterized plants, and yet this method has not been controversial. 6For an example of a failure to disentangle this important distinction, see Sheppard (1997), where the concerns really associated only with transgenic modifications are cast across all GM techniques.

I Multilateral examples include the WTO Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, which attempts to remove domestic regulatory barriers for food safety by coordinating regulations within international standards-setting organizations, such as the Codex Alimentarius (see Chapter 3) II Regional examples include: the EU–US Transatlantic Business Dialogue (TABD), 1995, which is a forum for commercial interests to identify regulatory barriers; the Canada–EC Framework Agreement for Commercial and Economic Cooperation, 1976; and the EC–Canada Trade Initiative (ECTI), 1998 C Aim is to transform the market to ‘internalize’ or appropriately value traditionally nonmarket, social objectives, so that decentralized market activity can achieve efficient and optimal outcomes.

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