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A set of lecture notes in response to lectures given on the Nankai Institute of arithmetic within the fall of 1998, the 1st in a sequence of such collections. makes a speciality of the paintings of the writer and the overdue Chih-Han Sah, on points of Hilbert's 3rd challenge of scissors-congruency in Euclidian polyhedra.
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2 Community Structure Our goal is to track the evolution of open source communities with time. Communities form around open source projects. They are groups of developers who share a common interest in the project, and who regularly interact with one another to share knowledge, and collaborate in the solution of common problems . Communities are at the core of what is described in  as Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs), highly functional teams characterized by the principles of meritocracy, consistency, and internal transparency.
Each row contains the number of developers migrating from a given project to any of the other projects during the following year. Note that "pool" is not a project, but indicates the influx of new core developers. Many of these developers migrate to new projects, of which they form the core to which new developers attach themselves. As projects are spun off from existing projects, developers tend to migrate with community members they closely associate with. We should expect the effect to be most pronounced, if the leader of one project moves on to a new project: this would create an even stronger pull for other core developers to join the new project.
The Usability of Open Source software. First Monday, 8(1), January 2003. 28. Tim O'Reilly. Lessons from open-source software development. Communications of the ACM, 42(4):32-73, April 1999. 29. Bruce Perens. The open source definition. In Chris DiBona, Sam Ockman, and Mark Stone, editors, Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. O'Reilly and Associates, 1999. 30. Eric S. Raymond. The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary. O'Reilly and Associates, 1999.