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By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Committee on America's Climate Choices

Weather switch is going on. it's very most likely as a result of the emission of greenhouse gases from human actions, and poses major dangers for more than a few human and ordinary structures. And those emissions proceed to extend, in an effort to lead to extra swap and larger dangers. America's weather offerings makes the case that the environmental, fiscal, and humanitarian dangers posed through weather switch point out a urgent desire for big motion now to restrict the value of weather swap and to arrange for adapting to its affects. even if there's a few uncertainty approximately destiny threat, performing now will lessen the dangers posed through weather switch and the strain to make greater, extra quick, and very likely costlier mark downs later. so much activities taken to minimize vulnerability to weather switch affects are logic investments that would provide security opposed to common weather diversifications and severe occasions. furthermore, the most important funding judgements made now approximately apparatus and infrastructure can "lock in" commitments to greenhouse gasoline emissions for many years to return. ultimately, whereas it can be attainable to reduce or opposite many responses to weather swap, it's tough or very unlikely to "undo" weather switch, as soon as manifested. present efforts of neighborhood, kingdom, and private-sector actors are vital, yet probably not to yield development such as what can be completed with the addition of robust federal regulations that identify coherent nationwide objectives and incentives, and that advertise robust U.S. engagement in international-level reaction efforts. The inherent complexities and uncertainties of weather swap are top met by means of making use of an iterative possibility administration framework and making efforts to seriously lessen greenhouse fuel emissions; arrange for adapting to affects; put money into clinical learn, expertise improvement, and knowledge structures; and facilitate engagement among clinical and technical specialists and the numerous sorts of stakeholders making America's weather offerings.

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Changes in one system can affect others, and actions taken to limit or adapt to climate change may result in unintended consequences, both positive and negative. 10 Improving freshwater use efficiency to increase a community’s resilience to climate change can also help that community deal with natural variations in water supply. 11 Although some ancillary costs 34 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. America's Climate Choices The Unique Challenges of Climate Change and benefits can be anticipated, there are inherent limits in the predictability of many such interactions, and it is thus difficult to account for them when assessing costs and benefits of specific climate change response actions.

Of course, one option is always to do nothing. Most everyone ignores some risks in daily life, and the United States might chose to give little attention to the risks associated with climate change. In the committee’s view, however, such a path would not be prudent. Uncertainty is, after all, usually a two-edged sword: it is possible that future climate-related risks will be less serious than currently thought, but it is also possible that they will be even more serious. Even the most aggressive possible response could not remove all potential risks, since the 39 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

S. action must be conditioned on actions by other nations, given the economic disadvantages that the country might face if it committed to significant emission reductions without similar commitments from other nations. Others argue that the United States, as the country with largest historical share of GHG emissions and with one of the highest per capita GHG emission rates, has an ethical obligation to substantially reduce domestic emissions, even in the absence of commitments from other nations.

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