By Leonard Susskind
Over the past decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized via advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein’s attention that black holes have entropy. Steven Hawking raised profound concerns in regards to the lack of info in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in an international with gravity. for 2 a long time those questions wondered theoretical physicists and at last ended in a revolution within the manner we expect approximately area, time, topic and data. This revolution has culminated in a extraordinary precept referred to as "The Holographic Principle", that is now an incredible concentration of awareness in gravitational learn, quantum box idea and user-friendly particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String idea, develops and explains those thoughts.
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Extra resources for An Introduction To Black Holes, Information And The String Theory Revolution
12) and The Rindler energy and the Schwarzschild mass are both just the energy of the black hole. The Schwarzschild mass is the energy as reckoned by observers at inﬁnity using t-clocks, while the Rindler energy is the (dimensionless) energy as deﬁned by observers near the horizon using ω-clocks. It is of interest that the Rindler energy is also extensive. 14) 1 where 2π is the Rindler temperature. Thus we see the remarkable fact that horizons have universal local properties that behave as if a thermal membrane or stretched horizon with real physical properties were present.
Certainly this is not a good candidate to represent the original Minkowski vacuum. A black hole, on the other hand, is not a translationally invariant system. One might therefore suppose that the evolution of the horizon might lead to the Fock space vacuum with no quanta rather than the thermal state. This however would clearly violate the fourth guiding principle stated in the introduction: To a freely falling observer, the horizon of a black hole should in no way appear special. Moreover, the large back reaction on the gravitational ﬁeld that would result from the divergent expectation value of T µν makes it unlikely that this state can exist altogether.
There are two viewpoints we can adopt toward the description of the particle’s motion. The ﬁrst is the viewpoint of the Fidos who are permanently stationed outside the black hole. It is a viewpoint which is also useful to a distant observer, since any observation performed by a Fido can be communicated to distant observers. According to this viewpoint, the particle never crosses the horizon but asymptotically approaches it. The second viewpoint involves freely falling observers (FREFOS) who follow the particle as it falls.