By Elisabeth Hsu (auth.), Tariq Aftab, Jorge F.S. Ferreira, M. Masroor A. Khan, M. Naeem (eds.)
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone initially extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a good antimalarial agent, fairly for multi-drug resistant and cerebral malaria. notwithstanding, the focus of artemisinin within the plant is particularly low. as the chemical synthesis of artemisinin is advanced and never economically possible in view of the negative yield of the drug, the intact plant continues to be the single workable resource of artemisinin creation. for this reason, it can be crucial to extend the focus of artemisinin in A. annua to lessen the price of artemisinin established antimalarial medicines. Plant scientists have concentrated their efforts on A. annua for the next artemisinin crop yield. With the current quantity, we're bringing jointly the learn that is being performed in this plant in the course of the international and destiny percentages for scientists and researchers who are looking to paintings on it.
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Additional resources for Artemisia annua - Pharmacology and Biotechnology
In addition, research for a vaccine for malaria would be a noble gift to Africa and other areas where malaria is endemic and should be intensified. References Abdin MZ, Israr M, Rehman RU, Jain SK (2003) Artemisinin, a novel antimalarial drug: biochemical and molecular approaches for enhanced production. Planta Med 69:1–11 Aftab T, Khan MMA, Idrees M, da Silva JAT, Naeem M et al (2012) Exogenous nitric oxide protects Artemisia annua from oxidative stress generated by boron and aluminium toxicity.
Annua teaa Before treatment After treatment Parasitaemia (P. falciparum) Subjective symptoms Among these Headache Fever Chills Arthralgia Vertigo Others 48 (100 %) 48 (100 %) 4 (8 %) 11 (23 %) 37 27 10 14 6 27 3 1 0 4 1 8 a Eighteen men, 30 women; mean age 38 years, range 18–67 years Source Mueller et al. 2000 efficacy of traditional formulations of A. annua and their low artemisinin content. At present, it is not known whether slow clearance of artemisinin-treated parasites is associated with increases in gametocyte prevalence, density or infectivity to mosquitoes.
2 Clinical trial of A. annua preparations for patients and malaria Preparation Total Efficacy Recrudescence Na Species Dose rate (g) Days References 100 (%) ? 485 Vivax Crude alcohol 72 3 100 (%) ? 105 Falciparum Crude alcohol 72 3 100 (%) 8 % 50 Vivax Oil based capsule 129 6 100 (%) ? 5 Falciparum Aqueous infusion 20 5 93 (%) 13 % 254 Falciparum ? others Aqueous infusion 35 7 92 (%) ? 48 Aqueous 20 decoction 4 a N = Number of subjects Source Wilcox et al. 2004a, b Falciparum Chang and But (1986) Chang and But (1986) Yao-De et al.