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By Etienne Wenger

Contributor note: ahead by way of John Seely Brown & James Greeno
Publish 12 months note: First released in 1987
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Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems, the 1st finished reference textual content during this dynamic region, surveys examine because the early Seventies and assesses the cutting-edge. Adopting the viewpoint of the communique of data, the writer addresses sensible matters eager about designing tutorial platforms in addition to theoretical questions raised by way of investigating computational equipment of information verbal exchange.

Weaving jointly the ambitions, contributions, and interesting demanding situations of clever tutoring process improvement, this well timed e-book turns out to be useful as a textual content in classes on clever tutoring structures or computer-aided guideline, an creation for newbies to the sphere, or as a reference for researchers and practitioners.

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Extra resources for Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems: Computational and Cognitive Approaches to the Communication of Knowledge

Sample text

Expert modules can be classified along a spectrum ranging from completely opaque or "blackbox" representations, whereby only final results are available, to fully transparent or "glass-box" ones, whereby each reasoning step can be inspected and interpreted. Furthermore, whether opaque or transparent, the expert module may achieve its performance with methods that vary in their degree of similarity to the ones used by human experts. Both aspects, transparency and psychological plausibility, affect the degree of articulation of the model of expertise, and the support that the expert module provides for communication processes.

The knowledge required for the translation function of the interface has been represented explicitly in instructional systems for some time, for instance in the form of parsing mechanisms. However, the idea of actively using knowledge about the expressiveness of the interface in the communication process is only now surfacing as the intelligent management of the screen and other media comes to be understood as a communication skill. We will see that some researchers are thinking of automating certain interface decisions by incorporating knowledge about interface principles into their systems.

Unlike performance, the communication process is organized around learning: that is, around the successful integration of new material and new experiences into the student's existing body of knowledge. This requires pieces of information that are specifically used for pedagogical purposes, although by nature they belong to the domain, rbr instance, prerequisite relations and measures of relative difficulty are crucial to flexibility in assembling instructional sequences. Other pedagogically oriented pieces of domain knowledge include rationales for explanations in terms of goals and causes, as well as conceptual or taxonomic relations between pieces of knowledge that facilitate the use of analogies and abstractions.

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