By Roger G. Barry and Richard J. Chorley
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Methane has an atmospheric lifetime of about nine years and is responsible for some 18 per cent of the greenhouse effect. Cattle populations have increased by 5 per cent per year over thirty years and paddy rice area by 7 per cent per year, although it is uncertain whether these account quantitatively for the annual increase of 120 ppbv in methane over the past decade. 4, showing the mean annual release and consumption, indicates the uncertainties in our knowledge of its sources and sinks. 4 Mean annual release and consumption of CH4 (Tg).
Russell, F. A. R. and Archibald, E. D. (1888) On the unusual optical phenomena of the atmosphere, 1883–6, including twilight effects, coronal appearances, sky haze, coloured suns, moons, etc. In The Eruption of Krakatoa, and Subsequent Phenomena, Royal Society, Krakatoa Committee, Tubner & Co, London, pp. 151–463. Schimel, D. et al. (1996) Radiative forcing of climate change. In Houghton, J. T. et al. (eds) Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.
Pressures are standardized in three ways. 12 The spread of volcanic material in the atmosphere following major eruptions. (A) Approximate distributions of observed optical sky phenomena associated with the spread of Krakatoa volcanic dust between the eruption of 26 August and 30 November 1883. (B) The spread of the volcanic dust cloud following the main eruption of the El Chichón volcano in Mexico on 3 April 1982. Distributions on 5, 15 and 25 April are shown. Sources: Russell and Archibald (1888), Simkin and Fiske (1983), Rampino and Self (1984), Robock and Matson (1983).