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By John M. Wallace

This textbook features a attention of the huge box of difficulties hooked up with statistical tools of processing of saw facts, with the most examples and regarded versions relating to geophysics and seismic exploration. This textbook should be quite necessary to scholars and pros from numerous fields of physics, hooked up with an estimation of the parameters of the actual gadgets by means of experimental information. The reader may also locate many vital issues, that are the root for statistical equipment of estimation and inverse challenge options creation and evaluate -- The earth procedure -- Atmospheric thermodynamics -- Radiative move -- Atmospheric chemistry -- Cloud microphysics -- Atmospheric dynamics -- climate structures -- The atmospheric boundary layer -- weather dynamics

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This section describes these processes and the media in which they occur. 1 The Oceans The oceans cover 72% of the area of the Earth’s surface and they reach an extreme depth of nearly 11 km. 6 km deep, covering the entire surface of the Earth. The mass of the oceans is ϳ250 times as large as that of the atmosphere. a. Composition and vertical structure The density of sea water is linearly dependent on the concentration of dissolved salt. On average, sea water in the open oceans contains ϳ35 g of dissolved salts per kg of fresh water, with values typically ranging 25 7:40 PM Page 26 The Earth System from 34 to 36 g kgϪ1 (or parts per thousand by mass, abbreviated as o͞oo).

On the interbasin-scale thermohaline circulation,” Rev. , 33, p. ] South 60° Equator 30° 30° 60° North Surface Water Eq Latitude Pole Fig. 6 Idealized schematic of the thermohaline circulation in an equatorially symmetric ocean. The domain extends from the sea floor to the ocean surface and from equator to pole. Pink shading indicates warmer water and blue shading indicates colder water. The shaded arrows represent the exchange of energy at the air–sea interface: pink downward arrows indicate a heating of the ocean mixed layer and blue upward arrows indicate a cooling.

In either hemisphere the circulation around low pressure centers is cyclonic, and the circulation around high pressure centers is anticyclonic: that is to say, in reference to the pressure and wind fields, the term low is synonymous with cyclone and high with anticyclone. , directly across the isobars from higher toward lower pressure). In the surface wind field there is some tendency for cross-isobar flow toward lower pressure at higher latitudes as well, particularly over land. The basis for these relationships is discussed in Chapter 7.

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