By Graeme Forbes
Ascriptions of psychological states to oneself and others supply upward push to many fascinating logical and semantic difficulties. angle difficulties offers an unique account of psychological country ascriptions which are made utilizing intensional transitive verbs resembling 'want', 'seek', 'imagine', and 'worship'. Forbes bargains a concept of ways such verbs paintings that pulls on rules from average language semantics, philosophy of language, and aesthetics.
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Additional resources for Attitude Problems: An Essay On Linguistic Intensionality
Then chases( jerry) is applied to tom to get a truth-value. The parentheses around chases ( jerry) in (3c) are not strictly necessary, for if we know that (4) chases( jerry)(tom) is well-typed, it cannot be chases(jerry(tom)). This is because jerry is not a function, so jerry(tom) is ill-typed. In general, we try to strike a balance between minimizing ambiguity and minimizing clutter in type-theoretic formulae. But in specifying a semantic type we fully parenthesize, so that the speciﬁcation is unambiguous.
Here the rule is the obvious one that if α(β) is well-typed, then α(β) = α ( β ). In the case of expressions related by type-raising or boolean coordination, the one of simplest type gets assigned a meaning directly and the meanings of the others are derived (cf. (18)). There are also rules speciﬁc to logical constants such as not, and, some and every: (21) a. not is the function f in the domain Dbb such that f ( ) = ⊥ and f (⊥) = . b. and is the function f in Db(bb) such that (i) f ( ) = the function g in Dbb such that g( ) = and g(⊥) = ⊥; and (ii) f (⊥) = the g in Dbb such that g( ) = ⊥ and g(⊥) = ⊥.
We understand this in turn to mean that the property of being chased by Tom has the property of being a property of some mouse. So it is a property of some mouse. Hence some mouse is an x such that Tom chases x, the intuitive meaning we are after. A property of individuals is sometimes called a ﬁrst-order property. Correspondingly, a property of properties of individuals is a second-order property. Generalizing from (12), then, our semantics for qnp’s makes them second-order properties. Finally, we should correct a misleading impression that may be left by our discussion of λ-abstraction and example (10).