By Erik Larsen, Ronald M. Aarts
Larsen (speech and listening to bioscience and expertise, Massachusetts Institute of expertise) and Aarts, a researcher within the deepest zone within the Netherlands, study purposes of bandwidth extension (BWE) to tune and speech, putting exact emphasis on sign processing recommendations. protecting thought, functions, and algorithms, they overview very important innovations in psychoacoustics, sign processing, and loudspeaker conception, and boost the idea and implementation of BWE utilized to low-frequency sound copy, perceptually coded audio, speech, and noise abatement. an summary of a BWE patent is incorporated. The publication can be of curiosity to engineers, researchers, and postgraduate scholars in audio, sign processing, and speech.
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Additional info for Audio Bandwidth Extension: Application of Psychoacoustics, Signal Processing and Loudspeaker Design
The system from tympanic membrane to oval window serves as an impedance-matching device so that a large portion of sound energy at the frequencies of interest, in the air, is transmitted into the cochlea. 15 Sketch of the peripheral part of the hearing system, showing outer (pinna, auditory canal, eardrum), middle (malleus, incus, stapes), and inner ear (cochlea) can be used to attenuate high-level sounds (primarily low frequency). Pressure equalization in the middle ear is achieved through the Eustachian tube, which connects the middle ear cavity to the throat.
Because these signals are generally not stationary, the spectrum varies from moment to moment, and the spectrogram is useful to visualize this spectro-temporal behaviour of speech and music. First we will consider speech, and then music. For both cases, we will make it plausible that certain bandwidth limitations can be overcome by suitable processing. Some of the material in this chapter is taken from Aarts et al. . 1 SPEECH Speech communication is one of the basic and most essential capabilities of human beings.
For the vowel sound in ‘hood’, pronounced by a male speaker, R1 ≈ 400 Hz and R2 ≈ 1000 Hz. In contrast, to produce the vowel in ‘had’, R1 and R2 must be raised to about 600 and 1400 Hz respectively, by opening the mouth wider and pulling the tongue back. For women, the characteristic resonance frequencies are roughly 10% higher. But for both sexes, the pitch frequency fp in speech and singing is generally well below R1 for any ordinary vowel sound – except when sopranos are singing very high notes, in which case they raise R1 towards fp (Goss Levi , Joliveau et al.