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By Bernard J. Paris

the long-lasting attraction of Shakespeare's works derives principally from the truth that they include brilliantly drawn characters. Interpretations of those characters are items of fixing modes of notion, and therefore earlier reasons in their habit, together with Shakespeare's, now not fulfill us. during this paintings, Bernard J. Paris, an eminent Shakespearean student, exhibits how Shakespeare endowed his tragic heroes with enduring human features that experience made them suitable to humans of later eras.

Bargains with Fate employs a psychoanalytic method encouraged by way of the theories of Karen Horney to research Shakespeare's 4 significant tragedies and the character that may be inferred from all of his works. This compelling learn first examines the tragedies as dramas approximately people with conflicts like our personal who're in a country of hindrance as a result breakdown in their offers with destiny, a trust that they could magically keep watch over their destinies by way of dwelling as much as the dictates in their protecting strategies.

choked with daring hypotheses supported via rigorously unique debts, this leading edge learn is a source for college students and students of Shakespeare, and for these drawn to literature as a resource of mental perception. The author's blend of literary and psychoanalytic views publications us to a humane knowing of Shakespeare and his protagonists, and, in flip, to a extra profound wisdom of ourselves and human behavior.

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Additional resources for Bargains with Fate: Psychological Crises and Conflicts in Shakespeare and His Plays

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Homey is often thought of as belonging to the "cultural school" that flourished in the 1930s. After her first book, however, her emphasis was less on culture than on intrapsychic processes and interpersonal relations. I find it useful to place her mature theory in the context of what Abraham Maslow has called "Third Force" psychology (1968, vi). What distinguishes Third Force theorists from Freudians and behaviorists is their contention that man is not simply a tension-reducing or a conditioned animal, but that there is present in him a third force, an "evolutionary constructive" force, that urges "him to realize his given potentialities" (Homey 1950, 15), 1 Homey believes that each person has a biologically based inner nature, a "real self," that it is his object in life to actualize.

The real self can be actualized only through interaction with the environment, and the degree and form of its actualization are heavily dependent upon external conditions, including culture. Under unfavorable conditions, the individual loses touch with his real self and his behavior is dictated by compulsive defensive strategies rather than by spontaneous feelings, interests, and wishes. Among these strategies is the creation of an idealized image, which in tum generates a despised image and intensifies self-hate.

Claudius is untrustworthy, undeserving, a disgrace to the state. While this man has been elevated, Hamlet's own position has been diminished. He speaks of himself as a "poor ... man" (I, v) and complains of being "most dreadfully attended" (II, ii). He does not dwell upon his political frustrations because he has taboos against ambition, but others assume he is brooding about them, and no doubt he is in a repressed way. His whole demeanor shows that he is feeling abused. At a more conscious level, his faith in the political order has been profoundly disturbed, and he cannot help feeling that life is unjust.

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