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By Iain D. Campbell

Booklet through Campbell, Iain D., Dwek, Raymond A.

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Consequently, the concept that light is a particle is restricted by its wave-like property. Similarly, the concept that a matter particle is a wave is restricted by its particle-like property. That means we cannot use the property of wave or particle for all matter without restriction. The rule that brings the restriction is called the uncertainty principle discovered by Heisenberg. The fundamental attributes of particles are the position in the space and the momentum, and that of 41 Atoms waves is the wavelength.

Electrons: Linear accelerator, betatron, microtron. β-Rays: Radioisotopes. Heavy ions: Linear accelerator, cyclotron, synchrotron. Neutrons: Cyclotron, nuclear reactor, Cf-254, Cf-252. 1) 17 Basic Knowledge of Radiation This quantity is independent of the distance between both electrodes. The electric charge gains the kinetic energy corresponding to W. Since electric charge in nature cannot be divided infinitely, the minimum unit is called the elementary electric charge. An electron (e–) has a negative elementary electric charge, –e.

31: 175–177. Uehara S, Nikjoo H, Goodhead DT. 1993. Cross-sections for water vapour for Monte Carlo electron track structure code from 10 eV to 10 MeV region. Phys. Med. Biol. 38: 1841–1858. Uehara S, Nikjoo H. 2002. Monte Carlo track structure code for low-energy alpha particles in water. J. Phys. Chem. 106: 11051–11063. Uehara S, Toburen LH, Nikjoo H. 2001. Development of a Monte Carlo track structure code for low-energy protons in water. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 77: 138–154. Uehara S. 1986. The development of a Monte Carlo code simulating electron-photon showers and its evaluation by various transport benchmarks.

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