By Michael R. Ladisch, Lynn Wright (auth.), Mark Finkelstein, Brian H. Davison (eds.)
In Biotechnology for Fuels and chemical compounds, in keeping with the nineteenth Symposium, held in Colorado Springs, CO, could 4-8, 1997, prime researchers from academia, undefined, and govt current their new purposes and state of the art study advances within the construction of fuels and chemical substances via biotechnology. the focal point of the continuing used to be at the usage of renewable assets, relatively cellulosic biomass.
Biotechnology for Fuels and chemical compounds covers quite a lot of technical issues. one of the excessive issues are cutting edge pretreatment approaches which could flip lignocellulosic fabrics into uncomplicated sugars, the improvement of interesting new biocatalysts and microbes, new reactor designs, and creative conversion techniques. additionally mentioned are a few microbes and crops which were genetically transformed to accomplish novel bioconversions to provide enzymes and key chemical intermediates. The assembly essentially tested that biotechnology and bioprocessing could make it attainable to transform cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemical substances in a commercially appealing fashion.
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Extra info for Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals: Proceedings of the Nineteenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held May 4-8. 1997, at Colorado Springs, Colorado
Pretreatment), followed by acid- or enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of the cellulosic fraction. Enzymatic hydrolysis may be improved by using an alkali to extract a fraction of the lignin from the pretreated material. The removal of the lignin may increase the accessibility of the cellulose to enzymatic attack, and thus improve overall economics of the process, if the alkali-treated material can still be effectively converted to ethanol. Pretreated Douglas fir produced by a sulfuric-acid-catalyzed steam explosion was treated with NaOH, NH40H, and lime to extract some of the lignin.
The reactor has a fixed and a movable end; the movable end is supported by a compressed spring. As the reaction progresses, the gradual depletion of the packed-solid biomass causes the particle structure to be less dense. To overcome this limitation, the springattached movable end presses the loose biomass particles closer, allowing the bulk-packing density of the lignocellulosic biomass to be maintained constant. Although pilot-scale reactor designs, which allow for the continual shrinkage of the biomass-bed as a function of hydrolysis, will most likely not resemble the bench-scale design (Fig.
5, were applied in the study. 5, and about 60% of the slow portion of hemicellulose was hydrolyzed after the first stage.