Download Biotechnology in Healthcare: An Introduction to by Gavin Brooks PDF

By Gavin Brooks

This paintings bargains an advent to the ways that biotechnology can play a job in healthcare together with pharmacology. It offers a heritage in molecular biology and overviews concepts comparable to gene cloning, gene treatment, transgenic animals and medical remedy examples.

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When the substrate for the enzyme is subsequently incubated with the filter, a colour reaction will develop specifically in the region of the protein of interest and can be visualised either directly or as an image on photographic film (in the case of radiolabelled secondary antibodies this image is visualised directly without the need for a substrate). The levels of protein expression can then be determined by densitometry. Immunoprecipitation In this technique, the protein of interest is precipitated from a mixture of proteins by first incubating with an antibody that is specific for the protein of interest (primary antibody).

To these ends, a variety of key technologies and panels of mapping reagents have been developed. As necessitated by the nature of the problem, these methods range from cytogenetic studies of whole chromosomes or chromosome fragments to identification of single nucleotide changes in a specific disease gene. Chp2 11/9/98 9:52 am 22 Page 22 Molecular genetic mapping of disease genes Cytogenetic analysis Although normally not visible by conventional microscopy, during mitosis replicated chromosomes condense as paired structures and align to a spindle to ensure accurate distribution of chromosomes to each daughter cell.

Bacteria protect their own DNA from digestion by their own restriction enzymes by methylation, which blocks many restriction enzymes. If bacteriophage DNA is cut by a bacterial enzyme, it cannot infect that strain of bacteria, although it may be able to infect another strain with different restriction enzymes. Mammalian DNA can usually be cut in vitro with restriction enzymes despite often being methylated. This is because methylation in eukaryotic cells has a different function from that in prokaryotic cells (bacteria) and does not protect the DNA from restriction enzymes.

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