By Alfonso Barbarisi (auth.), Alfonso Barbarisi (eds.)
The twentieth century has entire, the century whilst surgical procedure took large steps ahead due to growth in know-how. we now have entered the "century of biotechnologies", with a view to not just generate development in surgical procedure, but in addition result in a true "cultural revolution" that may thoroughly swap methods to fixing assorted difficulties in medicine.
The goal of this booklet is to carry surgeons in the direction of biotechnologies and to beat the cultural hole dividing them from those new techniques. Biotechnologies are already proposed and used at varied degrees in surgical perform: in diagnostic method, permitting practitioners to spot ailments at an early degree and stick with their molecular amendment through the years; and in tissue engineering, the place using "smart scaffolds" bargains a potential solution to expanding call for for biocompatible tissues and organs in transplantation surgery.
This quantity specializes in the rising box of stem cells, studying either their function as attainable avid gamers in originating and perpetuating melanoma – "cancer stem cells" – and, conversely, their impressive therapeutical capability. an extra part is devoted to the assessment and alertness of derived molecular elements that could improve the physiological strategies which are essentially very important in surgical procedure, reminiscent of hemostasis and wound healing.
Surgeons have constantly been technologists, within the experience that because surgical procedure started they've got continuously wanted know-how, starting with a scalpel and surgical tools. they've got continually cooperated with technologists. although, within the new century, the 1st one of many millennium, a swift raise in wisdom that's outdoor the area of the surgeon’s conventional technological education is implementing itself – accordingly the purpose of this book.
It is now pressing to motivate surgeons to embody this information (biotechnology) with self assurance. via its very nature, biotechnology is totally diverse from the applied sciences used up to now, since it escapes the senses of sight and contact, which in the past were the essence of the surgeon’s work.
The mobile and molecular dimensions of biotechnologies are nonetheless a long way faraway from many of the contemporary advances in glossy surgical ideas. a standard language among surgeons and biotechnologists will create additional, innovative, growth in surgical sciences within the twenty-first century.
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Extra resources for Biotechnology in Surgery
The structure of the ESEM is very similar to the SEM, but the sample is not subjected to high vacuum to allow some of the hydration to be maintained. The degree of hydration of the sample can be controlled by varying the pressure and temperature, which allows the study of real-time changes in the structure and status of the sample . 2 Immunogold Labeling The most common immunohistochemical technique involves the use of two antibodies called primary and secondary. The primary antibody recognizes a specific antigen and binds to it while the secondary antibody recognizes and binds the Fc fragment of the primary immunoglobulin, which is conjugated to a substance which can be viewed with an optical microscope (chromophores or fluorescent) or electron microscope (metallic nanoparticles).
Cell search utilizes antibodies that are joined to microscopic iron particles, called ferrofluid. These antibody/ferrofluid combinations are capable of forming a very specific and tight bond with CTCs. These complexes are then drawn out of the blood samples by means of powerful magnets. Further treatment by means of staining and additional biomolecules and/or chemicals enables their positive identification as CTCs. A potentially more sensitive molecular approach for the detection of CTC is polymerase chain reaction after reverse transcription (RT-PCR) in its standard form as quantitative PCR or real-time.
In addition to the enumeration of C-EPC through FACS analysis (flow cytometry) of their surface markers, an overexpression off mRNA levels in EPC derived from tumor specimens compared to EPCs of normal tissues has been found . The measurement of cancer-related EC and EPC populations looks promising, but standardized protocols are needed in view of this possible clinical use. 6 EPC as Cellular Vehicles for Anticancer Therapy It has also been suggested that EPCs could be used as a vehicle for anticancer therapy.