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By John F. Myles (auth.)

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But Hasan also argues that Bourdieu fails to consider language as a force in the social shaping of the habitus. Hasan argues Bourdieu has to leave this out of his account because to include it would reveal his over-dependency on the ‘secondary’, parole, relations of language (Hasan 1999b: 67). Hasan agrees that Bourdieu’s concern with language as parole allows him to establish a sociological view of language that subordinates the non-arbitrariness of linguistic, semantic, meaning in order to stress the causality of symbolic power.

On the one hand, there are the socially constructed dispositions of the linguistic habitus, which imply a certain propensity to speak and to say determinate things (the expressive interest) and a certain capacity to speak, which involves both the linguistic capacity to generate an infinite number of grammatically correct discourses, and the social capacity to use this competence adequately in a determinate situation. On the other hand, there are the structures of the linguistic market, which impose themselves as a system of specific sanctions and censorship.

Ceremony or pageant) that help to give the utterance its ‘effect’. Austin points out that this is the only way to identify this type of statement as being distinct from the ability of any other speaker to use similar words. Bourdieu argues that beyond the features of a setting the ultimate and socially significant conditions for felicity ‘lies in the mystery of the ministry’ (Bourdieu and Thompson 1991: 75) which endows an individual utterance with such authority in the first place, rather than any particular contextual circumstances per se.

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