By Hendrik van der Ploeg
In glossy structures sign processing is played within the electronic area. opposite to analog circuits, electronic sign processing deals extra robustness, programmability, errors correction and garage chance. the fashion to shift the A/D converter in the direction of the enter of the process calls for A/D converters with extra dynamic diversity and better sampling speeds. This places severe calls for at the A/D converter and very likely raises the facility intake.
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Additional resources for Calibration Techniques In Nyquist A/D Converters
AC is a technology constant, dependent on the quality of the processing of the inter-metal layer. For example, in a double poly process the inter-poly oxide thickness is well controlled and therefore AC is generally smaller than in the case of back-end capacitors. 25. 25: A general pipe-line stage during sample phase (a) and hold and gain phase (b) In the case of one bit per stage, the signal is sampled on capacitors C1 and C2 during the sample phase. During the hold and gain phase the charge of C1 is transferred to C2 , which is then put in feedback.
9) where Ff is the folding factor and Afa is the gain of the folding ampliﬁer. Ff gives the number of times a comparator is reused in the total signal range. A larger value means that fewer comparators are required, although the demand on the linear region of the folding ampliﬁers increases. A small linear region is required because otherwise more than one differential pair inﬂuences a zero-crossing at the output of the folding ampliﬁer. This problem can be solved by using transistors in weak inversion to generate a small Vgt .
4a generate the zero-crossings of the ladder taps. 4b. This interpolation substantially decreases the input capacitance seen at the ladder, since the number of input pairs is halved. The number of interpolation stages (Nint ) can be more than one. When several interpolating pre-ampliﬁer stages are used (Nint > 1) instead of only one pre-ampliﬁer stage, the number of input pairs connected to the ladders is reduced even further. 2N − 1 comparators are still required for the quantization of the 2N − 1 zero-crossings.