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Note that changing impeller diameters may result in a loss in efficiency as the diameter is reduced. For reasonable speed variations the efficiency should not change appreciably. For pumps in the centrifugal range of specific speeds (radial flow impellers) the relationships between capacity, head and horsepower with changes in impeller diameter and speed are approximately as follows : For small variations in impeller diameter (constant speed) BHP, Dl3 INGERSOLLRAND CAMERON HYDRAULIC DATA For variations in speed: (constant impeller diameter) BHP, = S13 BHP, S,3 where D= Impeller diameters in inches H=Heads in feet QzCapacities in gpm S =Speeds in rpm BHP = Brake horsepowers Note: Subscript 1 is for original design conditions.

These problems are normally the result of interaction between the flow variation characteristics of the pumps and the acoustic natural frequency of the piping system. The coincidence of the flow variation and acoustic frequency can result in extremely high pressure pulsations. If unattenuated, the pulsations can lead to cavitation, piping vibration, fatique failure of pipe elements, and possibly damage t o pump components. An acoustic analysis is required t o avoid these problems. Typically, acoustic analyses of piping systems are conducted via either electro-analog techniques or digital computer simulation.

8692 ....... In. water' ft water' .... . . . t mercury at 32F (OC) Water at 68F (20C) Courtesy of Crane Co.. 310 Note-gpm and gal per 24 hr glven to the nearest whole number The value 7 48 gallons equals 1 cu ft is used In calculattng above table 2- 7 INGERSOLLRAND CAMERON HYDRAULIC DATA FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES AND NOZZLES Approximate discharge through orifice or nozzle. 3 d, Q = flow, in gpm d , = dia of orifice or nozzle opening, inches h = differential head at orifice, in feet of liquid.

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