By William L. Benoit
Crusade 2000 applies the practical concept of political crusade discourse--analyzing how messages acclaim, assault, or defend--to a number of various different types of crusade communique within the 2000 U.S. presidential basic and common election. those varieties in
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Extra resources for Campaign 2000: A Functional Analysis of Presidential Campaign Discourse (Communication, Media, and Politics)
5, ns). Gore’s spots were more positive than Bradley’s (91 percent, 84 percent), whereas Bradley attacked more than Gore (16 percent, 9 percent). 05; again, defenses were excluded from the calculation). 3, ns). Forbes had the largest percentage of attacks at 21 percent but even he was not exceptionally negative in the 2000 campaign. 001). We also have data from one candidate who ran in the last two campaigns: In 1996 43 percent of Forbes’ television spot utterances were attacks (Benoit, Blaney, & Pier, 1998) whereas in 2000 only 21 percent of the themes in Forbes’s ads were attacks, so he had fewer than half as many attacks in the 2000 campaign as in 1996.
Defenses Of the three functions of campaign discourse discussed here, the most research by far has examined persuasive defense, apologia, accounts, or image repair discourse. Benoit (1995a; see also 1997a, 2001) developed a typology of image repair strategies. This approach has been applied in studies of political, corporate, and other forms of image repair discourse (see also Benoit, 1995b, 1997b, 1998, 1999; Benoit & Anderson, 1996; Benoit & Brinson, 1994, 1999; Benoit & Czerwinski, 1997; Benoit, Gullifor, & Panici, 1991; Benoit & Hanczor, 1994; Benoit & McHale, 1999; Benoit & Nill, 1998a, 1998b; Blaney & Benoit, 1997, 2001; Blaney, Benoit, &Brazeal, 2002; Brinson & Benoit, 1996,1999; or Kennedy & Benoit, 1997).
And cut juvenile crime 38% (Bush) Attack Five times [McCain] voted to use your taxes to pay for political campaigns (Bush) Future Plans Acclaim [I favor] Banning all Saturday night specials (Bradley) Artack Gore’s targeted tax cuts leave out millions of people, over half of all taxpayers (Bush) General Goals Acclaim I will balance the budget every year. I will pay down the national debt . . And I will cut taxes for middle-class families (Gore) Attack Governor Bush is proposing to open up our-some of our most precious environmental treasures like the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to the big oil companies to go in and start producing oil there.