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By James A. Thurber, Candice J. Nelson

With new and revised essays all through, this publication offers a true schooling in sensible crusade politics. lecturers and crusade pros describe the innovation and truth of election campaigns as they've got developed through the years to culminate within the phenomena of the recent city conferences, bus excursions, speak radio, infomercials, concentration teams, and the web. The 3rd variation explains how crusade subject matters and techniques are set and communicated; how complex crusade strategies are used; why mobilizing volunteers is key; why early crusade cash is worthy extra; the best way to get the media to hide a crusade with no procuring it; and the way to take advantage of concentration teams, survey examine, and media to win elections. providing a different and cautious mixture of Democrat and Republican, educational and practitioner, and female and male crusade views, this quantity scrutinizes nationwide- and local-level campaigns in the course of the 2000 and 2008 election cycles. scholars, electorate, applicants, and crusade managers will research not just the right way to win elections but in addition why it has turn into primary to take action in a moral manner. excellent for quite a few classes in American executive, this ebook is key examining for political junkies of any stripe and severe scholars of campaigns and elections.

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If party nationalisation is imperfect, then the difference between district thresholds and national thresholds matters. Supposing ignorance of party nationalisation degrees, and going in line with the conventional school on electoral systems (notably an assumption taken tacitly by Lijphart, 1994b), I assume that party nationalisation is very high. 5 for a different assumption), and the concept of the effective threshold works quite well. 23 More precisely, the choice of one or the other PR formula might affect the seat distribution by a few seats, but does not have a major impact on the party system in large PR districts or in PR systems with relevant legal thresholds.

Although the number of parties is a macro variable, it helps to understand what happens at the micro level: mainly it reflects whether small political interest groups are able to create political parties and have success with them in elections. The impact of electoral systems on the number of parties has direct implications for the chances to form new political parties (cf. Hug, 2001; Sikk, 2006), and salient political importance in countries with ethnic minority groups that demand the possibility of being represented by their own parties.

To capture this, Rose and Urwin (1975, p. ) counted the number of uncontested seats. This has been extended to the territorial coverage index (Caramani, 2004, p. 39 These measures are easy to calculate and to understand. Where applications address the supply side of the electoral market Ϫ the offer of parties to voters Ϫ they capture the problem best. However, the understanding of party nationalisation remains rather rudimentary: measuring the share of contested districts gives little information about regional heterogeneity of party support (first problem).

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