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By M. Hirono

Because the early Nineties, China has witnessed an inflow of foreign NGOs, a lot of that have Christianity as their origin. The presence of foreign Christian firms in China, notwithstanding, isn't really new. Christian missionaries went to China within the age of imperialism. Historians argue the paintings of missionaries was once inextricably associated with the belief of a ‘civilizing mission’. This e-book severely assesses the assumption of a Christian ‘civilizing undertaking’ over the years, and explores the relevance of the belief to the modern context. by means of interpreting the non-Han people’s belief of overseas Christian organisations, this publication advocates the significance of engagement via in-depth discussion among foreign Christian NGOs and ethnic groups.

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Additional resources for Civilizing Missions: International Religious Agencies in China (Culture and Religion in International Relations)

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The only thing they bothered about is difficulty in realizing civilization (wenming), and for that reason, they have arrived at their present state of flourishing. (Shiwubao, December 11, 1896, 1152) In these examples, the term wenming refers to “Western civilization” with emphasis on Western culture, technology, and a Western legal system. As the term jiaohua transformed into the more recent wenming, it is clear that the Chinese notion of civilization had shifted toward that of “Western civilization,” with emphasis on Western culture and technology.

One of the determinants of the nature of the stateethnic minority relationships is how the state has defined the concept of civilization. ” Although the central purpose of this book is to understand the interaction between international Christian agencies and ethnic community members, the impact of the state on any such interaction cannot be neglected. This chapter discusses the historical transformation of the relationships between the state and ethnic minorities from the Chinese state’s perspective since the Qing period, and interprets the state’s views and policies on ethnic minorities in order to understand the transformation of the Chinese concept of civilization.

Accordingly, in the eyes of Chinese elite, China seemed to have changed from the superior civilizing center of the Confucian civilization to become an inferior actor in a world dominated by Western civilization. 28 Civilizing Missions Despite understanding universal and unitary civilization inherent in the expressions jiaohua and wenming, there were in fact two civilizational trajectories taking place at the same time; one from the West to China (to both the Chinese state and periphery), and the other from the Chinese state to the periphery.

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