Download Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Tomography of by Prof. Dr. med. Claus Claussen, Prof. Dr. med. Rudolf PDF

By Prof. Dr. med. Claus Claussen, Prof. Dr. med. Rudolf Fahlbusch, Prof. Dr. med. Roland Felix, Prof. Dr. med. Thomas Grumme, Dr. rer. nat. Jürgen Heinzerling, Priv.-Doz. Dr. med. José R. Iglesias-Rozas, Prof. Dr. med. Ekkehard Kazner, Prof. Dr. med. Konrad

This publication represents the second one, absolutely revised variation of the unique quantity released in 1982. event in neuroradiology has proven the exceptional price of computed tomography (CT) for the analysis of space-occupying lesions in the cranium and orbit. it'd be assumed, then, that the second one variation of this booklet might easily signify a numerically elevated continua­ tion of the preferred first version. that isn't the case, even though. Advances in imaging concepts have promp­ ted the production of a brand new ebook whose multiplied identify displays its extra comprehen­ sive nature. The further illustrations, the revised textual content, and the accelerated circle of editors and members record this. in view that book of the 1st variation, a brand new modality, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has develop into a longtime neuroradiologic learn. We felt it used to be necessary to comprise this new modality in our ebook and discover its functions as an accessory or replacement to CT scanning. as a result of the excessive acquisition charges of MRI and the nonetheless small variety of MR devices at the moment in operation, we've got relied partly on pictures offered via different associations and personal practitioners, to whom we're indebted. Many difficulties with regards to MR, either by way of apparatus and snapshot interpretation, have not begun to be resolved. there's no denying that we nonetheless have a lot to learn.

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13e offers low sensitivity with a high spectral separation. PCr, phosphocreatine; P, inorganic phosphate. (After Roth 1984) Because nuclei far less sensitive than 1H, such as 31 P, are used for spectroscopic studies, a relatively high magnetic field strength is necessary for in vivo experiments in order to limit the examination time. In addition, high field strengths yield better spectral resolution if the field is sufficiently homogeneous. This is because the line-widening relaxation effects (Tl /T2) do not increase in proportion to the field strength, so the relative degree of line widening by relaxation is less in higher fields.

During this process the excited hydrogen nuclei emit a radio frequency signal that can be detected electronically. This "MR signal" is utilized to construct an image. Relaxation at the molecular level is based on an interaction of excited hydrogen nuclei with surrounding atoms and molecules. The time course of this interaction is described by the T1 and T2 relaxation times. This quantum mechanical description of magnetic resonance characterizes MRI as a technique of tissue analysis in which the density of hydrogen nuclei (spin density) and the relaxation times T1 and T2 determine the MR signal of the sample in a homogeneous magnetic field.

The vascular structures give a low signal on all sequences [SE 400/35 (a), SE 1600/35+70 35 (b, c)]. This, together with their morphology, identifies them as vessels. Corresponding contrast-enhanced CT scans (d-f) II Fig. C5a-k. Calcifications. The CT scans (f-k) clearly demonstrate multiple plaque-like calcifications in an extensive frontal oligoastrocytoma. The MR images [SE 1600/30, 60, 210 (a, b, c), pre- and postcontrast SE 800/35 (d, e)] demonstrate a heterogeneous mass containing low-signal areas that represent calcifications.

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