By John Braithwaite
The pharmaceutical has a worse checklist of law-breaking than the other undefined. John Braithwaite examines the level of corruption, and exhibits the way it isn't really an remoted challenge, yet one engrained within the very constitution of the industry.
This is a rather infrequent ebook (currently $1,125.91 at Amazon). It''s a non-OCR, scanned model.
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Extra resources for Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry
The dose reported was near the LD50 for rats, but all of the animals died by day 21; it is indicated that the high mortality may partially reflect the stress of skin graft rejection. Although treatment resulted in 100% mortality, this dose represents a NOAEL for immunological effects due to acute duration oral exposure (Table 2-2 and 2. HEALTH EFFECTS Figure 2-2). No studies were located regarding immunological effects in animals following intermediate or chronic duration exposure to NDMA. 4 Neurological Effects No studies were located regarding neurological effects in humans following oral exposure to NDMA.
In the rat, NDMA is absorbed much faster from the small intestine than from the stomach, in isolated preparations (Heading et al. 1974) and in vivo (Pegg and Perry 1981). 2. HEALTH EFFECTS Ishiwata et al. (1977) reported that the disappearance curve of NDMA from isolated guinea pig stomach and small intestine follows first order kinetics. 3 Dermal Exposure No studies were located regarding the absorption of NDMA following dermal exposure of humans. Indirect evidence indicating that NDMA may be absorbed through the skin was found in a study published by Iversen (1980) in which topical application of NDMA induced lung adenomas in mice.
Information on hepatic effects in rats due to single oral exposures are also available. Additional single dose oral studies with rats would provide more information on thresholds for lethality and hepatotoxicity, and on nonhepatic effects. Studies on species other than the rat would provide data on interspecies differences. Single-exposure inhalation experiments provide limited information on lethality in rats, mice and dogs, and dermal/ocular effects in rats; additional studies could corroborate these data as well as provide NOAELs.