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By Ho-ming Mok

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144) 34 Ho-Ming Mok where nsus = v v fs d3v and us is the average velocity. Suppose there is no particle loss or production in collisions, the particle density will be unchanged such that the term on the righthanded side vanishes. 148) where ρms, ns and qs are the mass density, number density and charge of the particle species s respectively. As represents the collision term msv v( δ fs/ δ t)col d3v. Such momentum transport equation, which is analogous to the hydrodynamic equation in fluid dynamics, describes the rate of change of the mean momentum of the fluid element affected by the external forces as well as the internal particle interactions.

229) In deriving the approximate equations of MHD, the kinetic pressure is assumed to be a scalar in the momentum transport equation. However, the pressure of a conducting inviscid fluid in the presence of strong magnetic field is anisotropic such that the scalar field assumption is no longer valid. Suppose the cyclotron frequency frequency is much greater than the collision frequency, the charged plasma particles gyrates around the magnetic field lines many times before collision occurs. The particle kinetic energy associated in the direction parallel to the magnetic field is different from that perpendicular to it.

229) In deriving the approximate equations of MHD, the kinetic pressure is assumed to be a scalar in the momentum transport equation. However, the pressure of a conducting inviscid fluid in the presence of strong magnetic field is anisotropic such that the scalar field assumption is no longer valid. Suppose the cyclotron frequency frequency is much greater than the collision frequency, the charged plasma particles gyrates around the magnetic field lines many times before collision occurs. The particle kinetic energy associated in the direction parallel to the magnetic field is different from that perpendicular to it.

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